Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has focused attention on energy supply chains and contributed to growing unease in the West about the fact that supply chains for the commodities necessary for the global energy transition are highly concentrated in China (or are under Chinese control).
This paper explores the environmental and human security risks associated with critical mineral extraction, how rising demand for critical minerals in the context of the net zero transition will impact these risks, and what options exist for the UK to address these risks.
Understanding how Russia constructs its energy security and foreign policies is essential to anticipating how it might behave in international forums, particularly on challenging issues such as environmental and energy security.
Saudi Arabia is set to remain one of the most influential players in global oil and energy markets. Understanding – and taking seriously – its evolving strategic calculus must therefore be a key task for policymakers in the UK and across Europe as they seek to safeguard their countries’ energy security.
Military experimentation with uncrewed ground systems (UGS) is happening apace. Bomb disposal robots have been in service with armed forces for decades. Now, systems with greater capabilities and autonomy are being developed and tested.
This paper provides background on recent UK policy towards East Africa, summarises the research findings for RUSI's project 'Furthering Global Britain? Reviewing the Foreign Policy Effect of UK Engagement in East Africa’ and offers recommendations for the UK government with relevance both to the region and to an integrated foreign policy globally.
Forces that can leverage battlefield hyperconnectivity capabilities are likely to secure a competitive advantage over those that cannot. This paper seeks to explain what is driving changes to land forces’ command and control, the enterprise architecture that best supports the emerging requirements, and the implications for how command is practised.
In light of UK policy pledges to give defence a more regional footprint, this paper explores the extent of defence activity in Northern Ireland, a region that exhibits considerable defence potential yet has benefited only marginally from defence expenditure in recent years.
This paper sets out research findings on the UK’s development, defence and diplomacy engagements in Sudan from 2015 to the present. The paper also tests common assertions around the effects of Brexit, reductions in the UK aid budget, and the merger of two government departments, the Department for International Development and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.
By highlighting the experience of rogue states, and in particular Iran, this paper examines the question of how Western governments, notably in Europe, and their private sectors could strengthen their sanctions implementation and enforcement strategies in light of potential changes in Russia’s financial activity. It can be expected that Russia will seek to establish parallel financial relations that aim to evade the sanctions set against it by Ukraine’s allies.
This paper queries the nature and extent of crime-enabled terrorist financing (CETF) in Europe, including the importance of this financing stream in relation to others. In doing so, the paper also evaluates the present policy and law enforcement response to CETF, and endeavours to assess whether it is properly calibrated to the degree and character of the threat.